Novell Open Enterprise Server 2 Best Practices Migration Guide - Getting Started
This document is outdated and has been replaced by the Upgrading from NetWare to OES---Best Practices Guide
This document is designed to provide an overview of NetWare to OES 2 Linux migration design and implementation considerations and link you to available resources for in-depth information whether it be Novell Training Services, the Novell Web and WIKIs, product documentation, or Cool Solutions and other articles.
This document is one of a series of three that discuss best practices for migrating from NetWare to OES 2 Linux. See also:
These additional documents can be accessed from the NetWare to Linux Migration Sources on the Novell Open Enterprise Server Migration Web site.
Use this document to determine "what" you need to do in making the move to OES-Linux. Follow the links to additional information that explains "how."
Why OES 2?
There are distinct advantages in moving to OES 2 on Linux over staying on NetWare, particularly if you are using versions of NetWare prior to 6.5.
OES 2 Linux includes all the network services that organizations traditionally expect from Novell. Services included in OES 1 for Linux enjoyed feature-parity with NetWare 6.5 almost across-the-board; OES 2 offers clear advantages. When it's time to upgrade services, the logical move is to migrate to a Linux OS as well.
- ZENworks imaging is faster from a Linux server than a NetWare server.
- Performance is improved over and above NetWare, 65% in some of Novell's testing because of the enhanced support for 64-bit systems.
- iFolder 3.6 is included.
- NSS on OES 2 Linux is now feature compatible with NSS on NetWare.
- Dynamic Storage Technology (DST) is new and included. OES 2 introduces Novell DST, a unique storage solution that lets administrators combine a primary file tree and a shadow file tree so they appear to *NCP and Samba/CIFS users as one file tree. Administrators can create policies that dictate what data is considered active (data accessed in the last 30 days, for example) or inactive. Active data can remain on high-performing and highly available storage and inactive data automatically moved to a shadow file on a different, less expensive storage device, such as a SATA or JBOD device. Even though the data has been physically moved, it will appear to users and third-party applications as if it is still in its original location. This lets you manage storage costs in new and efficient ways that were not previously possible.
The primary and shadow trees can be located on different file systems, different servers, or even different types of storage.
- Clustering enhancements make moving clusters to Linux even more feasible.
- In addition to the legacy Server Consolidation and Migration Toolkit, OES 2 includes new migration tools for migrating data and services from NetWare to OES 2 Linux.
- XEN Virtualization Technology is improved.
Both OES 2 Linux and NetWare 6.5 SP7 can run in virtual machines on either an OES 2 Linux or a SLES 10 SP1 or later server. The ability to run NetWare 6.5 as a virtualized guest operating system in the Novell Open Enterprise Server environment is new to OES 2. This is especially valuable to those organizations that are deploying new hardware and want to consolidate or virtualize operating systems and services.
Novell anticipates that a single machine will be able to host two or three NetWare servers without affecting performance. You'll have the ability to preserve access to any NetWare-dependent applications and services while you migrate your IT environment and skill sets to Linux.
Note: Domain Services for Windows, which is scheduled to ship with OES 2 SP1 (currently scheduled for late 2008), will also offer some clear advantages. Novell engineering is enabling Linux servers to behave as if they are Active Directory servers. This will allow users to authenticate to a Linux server or service with their Windows clients using their eDirectory usernames and passwords, but using native Windows protocols. This will, in turn, provide seamless cross-authentication between Active Directory and eDirectory. In other words, users work in a pure Windows desktop environment while still taking advantage of Novell back-end services and technology.
Caveats to Upgrading
Even though migrating to OES 2 Linux across the board is our strong recommendation, you do need to plan for the following:
- There is more to configure on OES 2 Linux than with NetWare 6.5.
- Backup and Anti-Virus software tend to be more expensive and more difficult to find.
- The number of tasks that must be done to upgrade a node can be significant.
- There's a learning curve for NetWare administrators who aren't familiar with the command line or with Linux.
The OES 2 Planning and Implementation Guide includes links to the What's New sections for each of the services included in OES 2 Linux. The list is impressive.
Take a minute to have a look. A table listing OES 2 services by platform is also included: see Table 3-1, "Service Comparison Between OES 2 Linux and OES 2 NetWare (NetWare 6.5 SP7)."
Novell Connection magazine has run a series of articles, written by Ken Baker, over the last several months that highlight OES 2 features. We recommend them as an excellent source for information about What's New in OES2. See the following:
- Sneak Peek
- Dynamic Storage Technology
- Migrating from NetWare to OES
- Finalizing the Transition to Linux -The Wait Is Over
- Managing NetWare on a Virtualized Machine
What Our Customers Recommend
Periodically, Novell polls customers to get a reality check. The table below summarizes customer advice from a survey of OES Linux customers.
From December 2006 Novell Customer Survey
| Learn basic Linux skills first (before starting) or have someone handy; make sure you:
| Plan ahead and know your NetWare, Linux, and eDirectory environments very well:
| Migrate slowly and cautiously, but start now
| Test, test, test. Test everything multiple times, including 3rd party products like back-up solutions, before full deployment.
|Give it a try. Moving to OES Linux is easy and relatively painless.|
| Start your migration in a lab environment first and play with the product.
|It works the same as NetWare. The Novell management Interfaces look the same. iPrint, iManager, etc.-- all of the benefits of NetWare are available on OES Linux.|
|Don't freak out about the Linux non-eDirectory integrated tools (like DNS, DHCP, etc.). Become familiar with the basic commands for eDirectory management, such as ndsconfig.|
|Do your homework and read everything you can find. Scour the discussion forums and see what problems others are having and how they solved them, ask questions, and make notes.|
|Learn the web tools (iMonitor and iManager) for server management.|
|Avoid mixing Linux and NetWare, if possible. Create separate servers providing other services such as DNS, DHCP, etc., on Linux first to gain familiarity with Linux as a whole.|
|YaST is your friend. It's not always the answer though. Learn which things are best configured in the configuration files and which things you really "should" use YaST for.|
|Find out how well your hardware vendor supports Linux. Make sure your hardware vendor not only "supports Linux," but also provides regular driver updates for the version of SLES you are planning to deploy.|
Which Services Are Right for OES 2?
One of our third-party consultants offers this advice as to which services to move to Linux based on his experience implementing NetWare and Linux with enterprise customers:
|If you are using...||Then...|
|NetWare 5 or 6||Just make the move to OES 2 Linux across the board.|
|NetWare 6 or need Sarbane-Oxley compliance||Make sure you have an integration strategy and know what you want Linux to do for you. Move clusters, file, print, GroupWise, and Identity Manager to Linux. You can leave DHCP on NetWare or move it to Linux. If preferred, you can also leave DNS on NetWare and make the Linux boxes slaves.|
|Rich NetWare 6 or 6.5 environment or OES1-NetWare||*If preferred, you can keep iPrint and other services on NetWare, but you'll sacrifice the updates included with OES 2.
What Migration Tools Are Available?
OES 2 contains the following utilities, each of which fulfills a specific migration and/or service-consolidation purpose as explained below.
OES 2 Migration Tools
With OES 2, the migration tool model has changed. You no longer use the Server Consolidation and Migration Toolkit (SCMT) used with OES 1. Instead, SCMT has been replaced with an OES Migration Tool plus individual migration utilities specific to each service. SCMT is still an optional route for some migrations, but we recommend using the OES Migration Tool rather than SCMT wherever possible.
One advantage of using the individual tools is that you can take a phased approach to migration instead of having to do everything at once. You can start by migrating one service at a time, testing and evaluating its success before moving on to the next service. You can even migrate a single volume today and migrate more volumes later. Or you can migrate ten printers one week, ten more the next and so on.
Data. The primary purpose of the OES Migration Tools is to migrate data from the NetWare platform to the OES 2 Linux platform. Data migration tools can also be used to migrate data from OES 1.0 Linux servers and from Microsoft* Windows servers. A good place to start is the OES 2 Migration Tools Administration Guide which provides general information about migrating data. A helpful Migration Command Reference section is included.
Services. The best information about migrating individual services is included in the administration guide for each of the services. Links to these sections are available in Section 1.3 of the OES 2 Migration Tools Administration Guide.
In many cases, you will first need to install the service on an OES 2 Linux server and then use the specific migration tool to migrate data and configuration information to Linux. Both command line and GUI migration tools are available for most services; however, OES 2 must first be installed on Linux to access the GUI tools which are then available via YaST under the Migration and Open Enterprise Server categories.
Note the following:
- The OES Migration Tools are run exclusively on the destination Linux server and pull data from the NetWare source server. A Windows workstation is not required.
- The migration tools are made up of individual commands that work together to perform a full migration when run in the proper order.
eDirectory. A new utility (migedir) is available with eDirectory 8.8 but is not integrated with and is not compatible with other OES Migration Tools. This tool must be used in stand-alone mode. Use it when the only thing you want to migrate from NetWare to Linux is eDirectory. Compatibility with other migration tools so you can use them all in concert is scheduled for inclusion in SP1.
Server Consolidation and Migration Tool (SCMT)
The primary purpose of the Server Consolidation and Migration Tool (SCMT) is to migrate and consolidate users, file permissions, passwords, file systems, and Active Directory domains from existing NetWare or Microsoft* Windows servers.
There is no supported Ã¢â‚¬Å“in-placeÃ¢â‚¬Â upgrade methodology to move to OES 2 Linux from NetWare. While you can use the Server Consolidation Utility v4.11 (part of the latest release of the Novell Server Consolidation and Migration Toolkit) for migrating to OES 2 Linux, SCMT should be considered an optional tool. The following table outlines the requirements for using the Server Consolidation Utility.
Supported Source Server Versions for Server Consolidation Utility 4.11
|Minimum Supported (Tested) OS Version||Other Requirements|
|NetWare 4.11 SP9 & NetWare 4.2 with NDS 6.21||To NetWare only; IPX must be loaded on the destination server.|
|NetWare 5.0 SP6a with NDS 7.62c or NDS 8.85c||To NetWare only; TCP/IP must be loaded on the source server.|
|NetWare 5.1 SP8 or later with NDS 7.62c or NDS 8.85c|
|NetWare 6.0 SP5 or later with eDirectory 8.6.2|
|NetWare 6.5 SP2 or later with eDirectory 8.7.x|
|Open Enterprise Server for NetWare FCS (NetWare 6.5 SP3) or later with eDirectory 8.7.x|
Supported Destination Server Versions for Server Consolidation Utility 4.11
|Minimum Supported (Tested) OS Version||Other Requirements|
|Open Enterprise Server for NetWare SP1 (NetWare 6.5 SP4) or later|
|Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 or later||NSS volumes only when coming from NetWare|
NetWare Migration Wizard
The primary purpose of the Novell NetWare Migration Wizard is to migrate NetWare servers to new hardware.
When the migration is complete, the new server replaces and assumes the identity of the old server on the network.
Note: If you are migrating data to OES 2 Linux, use the OES Migration Tools or the Server Consolidation utility instead.
- OES 2 Migration Utilities: Best Practices Guide (a companion to this guide). This guide summarizes the procedures for migrating data and services from NetWare to OES 2 Linux. Summaries of the migration procedures for many OES 2 Linux services are included along with cross-references to additional information. This guide is available from the NetWare to Linux Migration Sources on the Novell Open Enterprise Server Migration Web site.
- OES 2 Consolidation & Virtualization: Best Practice Guide (a companion to this guide). This guide includes planning information for instituting virtualization services (primarily XEN and VMware) on OES 2 Linux. This guide is available from the NetWare to Linux Migration Sources on the Novell Open Enterprise Server Migration Web site.
- Novell Migration Web site. For information on the migration tools and resources currently available from Novell, visit www.novell.com/oesmigration. This migration web site provides dynamic access to content from the Novell Open Enterprise Server Migration Support Forum and the Cool Solutions Community, as well as collateral, documentation, articles, web links, and third-party resources. It also provides access to a community of users who share migration best practices.
- Novell documentation. OES 2: Migration Tools Administration Guide.
Links to Migration Sections. For a complete list of links to data and service migration instructions in the OES 2 documentation, See Section 1.3 in the OES 2: Migration Tools Administration Guide.
How Much Training Is Needed?
Some of our customers are hesitant to move to Linux because they don't currently have the needed expertise to learn the intricacies of a new OS when the old one works just fine and their administrators are not used to working at the command line. Moving to Linux can be a difficult paradigm shift since there's not enough that's similar between the two environments to intuitively know what to do. Retraining costs are issues that Novell recognizes and strives to mitigate through our courseware, some of it free for the download.
We recognize that the time and resource crunch is a problem for customers and recommend following the example of one of our customers. Four months prior to roll out, Novell provided OES and SLES training for their administrators at their site and on their hardware and software.
When we survey customers, they consistently tell us they want training that addresses:
- Differences in day-to-day support and management versus NetWare
- How to install and/or upgrade existing NetWare servers to OES Linux
- Differences between NetWare and Linux: services, features, and interoperability
Novell recommends that you conduct a training needs assessment. You'll want to determine whether current skill sets are absent, adequate, or proficient so that you can recommend a training package. Three levels of Linux expertise are recommended:
|Level of Expertise||Training Needed||Qualities of Potential Candidates|
|Certified Linux Experts||YouÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ll probably want at least some of your technical staff to be Linux certified (LPI level1 and/or LPI level 2). Many third-party Linux certification courses are available to meet this need.||*Are typically already Unix (AIX, Solaris, etc.) experts
|Linux Administrators|| Novell recommends SUSE LINUX-specific training.
Novell offers a variety of instructor-led and self-study certification and training options including Novell Advanced Technical Training (ATT) which is highly recommend. The comprehensive course ware addresses a wide range of advanced topics including support issues, in-depth architectural reviews, and enterprise solutions. ATT classes provide real-world expertise that can be put to immediate use.
|*Are currently Unix or NetWare administrators who are willing to expand skills
|Linux Support Staff||Support staff need to be knowledgeable about how specific network services (eDirectory, edge services, iPrint, etc.) work on Linux.
Novell offers service-specific courses for most major services.
|*Support current file, print, and other network systems
Here are some of the avenues you can use to get the training you need:
Novell Training Services
The following Novell courses are a good place to start:
- Course 3036 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Linux Fundamentals
- Course 3037 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Linux Administration
- Course 3038 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Advanced Linux Administration
- Course 3071 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Fundamentals
- Course 3072 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Administration
- Course 3073 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Advanced Administration
- Course 3074 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Networking Services
- Course 3077 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Integrating Novell Open Enterprise Server for Linux
- Course 3089 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Implementing Novell Open Enterprise Server 2 for Linux
- Advanced Technical Training: Novell Open Enterprise Server Advanced Topics
Novell certification and training options change periodically as new needs are identified and courses are developed. To learn more about these and other training options, visit the Novell training Web site at www.novell.com/training.
- To find the dates and local availability of the Novell Advanced Technical Training and other Novell offerings, go to: www.novell.com/training/pep/map.html.
- To request additional information on ATT course, send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
- To subscribe to the Technical Training Newsletter, see: http://www.novell.com/info/list
Product Documentation. Yes, the old adage is true: "If all else fails, read the documentation." This document contains numerous cross-references to sections relative to a specific topic or service. If you can't find what you need on Novell's documentation site, add a commentÃ¢â‚¬â€œtell us what we missedÃ¢â‚¬â€œand we'll see that you get the answer you need. Open Enterprise 2 documentation is available at the following URL: http://www.novell.com/documentation/oes2/index.html.
BrainStorm. Novell partner BrainStorm, Inc. provides an AdministratorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Command Reference for Novell Open Enterprise Server that shows common NetWare commands and their Linux counterparts. This reference card should prove extremely helpful in bridging the gap between NetWare and Linux commands.