# How to edit a page

It's very easy to edit a MediaWiki page. Simply click on the "Edit this page" link at the top or bottom (also on the sidebar) of a Wiki page to change the page itself, or click on "Discuss this page" link and then on "Edit this page" to write on the corresponding MediaWiki User's Guide: Talk pages|talk page. This will bring you to a page with a text box containing the editable text of that Wiki page.

Then type away, write a short edit summary on the small field below the edit-box and when finished press "Save"! You can also preview your changes before saving if you like. Depending on your system, pressing Enter while the edit box is not active (there is no typing cursor in it) may have the same effect as pressing Save.

It is often more convenient to copy and paste the text first into your favorite text editor, edit and spell check there, and then paste back into your web browser to preview. This way, you can also keep a local backup copy of the pages you authored so that you can make changes offline.

## Minor edits

When editing a page, a logged-in user has the option of flagging the edit as a "minor edit". When to use this is somewhat a matter of personal preference. The rule of thumb is that an edit of a page that is spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearranging of text should be flagged as a "minor edit". A major edit is basically something that makes the entry worth relooking at for somebody who wants to watch the article rather closely, so any "real" change, even if it is a single word. This feature is important, because users can choose to hide minor edits in their view of the Recent Changes page, to keep the volume of edits down to a manageable level.

The reason for not allowing a user who is not logged in to mark an edit as minor is that vandalism could then be marked as a minor edit, in which case it would stay unnoticed longer. This limitation is another reason to log in.

## Summary field for edits

When you edit a page in the wiki, you should take a minute with each revision to provide a short summary in the Summary field about what the changes you made are. This significantly helps someone else to get a quick overview of the changes made to a page. It is very "un-user-friendly" to see a long list of versions without any idea what was changed in each revision unless you use the "diff" function.

## The wiki markup

In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the Sandbox.

### Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines

What it looks like What you type

## New section

### Subsection

#### Sub-subsection


== New section ==
or
<h3> New section </h3>

=== Subsection ===
or
<h4> Subsection </h4>

==== Sub-subsection ====
or
<h5> Sub-subsection </h5>



A single newline has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the diff function.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

A single newline
has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the ''diff'' function.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.
You can break lines<br>
without starting a new paragraph.
• Lists are easy to do:
• start every line with a star
• more stars means deeper levels
* Lists are easy to do:
** start every line with a star
** more stars means deeper levels

1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
Definition list
definition (1)
definition (2)
definition (3)
; Definition list : definition (1)
: definition (2)
: definition (3)

• One item per line, NEWLINE only before the colon. The space

before the colon improves parsing.

A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ascii art;

WARNING If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ascii art;
Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>
A horizontal dividing line: above

and below.

Useful for separating threads on Talk pages.

A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below. 

## Images, Media

What it looks like What you type
A picture: The Novell Icon
• Only images that have been uploaded to Wikibooks can be used. To upload

images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list

A picture: [[Image:Nov_red.gif]]

or, with alternate text (strongly encouraged)

[[Image:Nov_red.gif|The Novell Icon]]


Web browsers render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud.

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Nov_red.gif

[[:Image:Nov_red.gif]]


To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, or to images shown

as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.


[[media:Penguin_vs_butterfly_real.ram| Penguin Vs. Butterfly Video]]
| Identity and Provisioning Power Point]]
[[media:Securing_Netware_Standard_FINAL.doc| Securing NetWare Word Document]]
[[media:Pki_directory_pp.pdf | PKI PDF]]


To link to books, you can use ISBN links. ISBN 0123456789X See MediaWiki User's Guide: ISBN links

ISBN 0123456789X

"What links here" and "Related changes" can be linked as:
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/How to edit a page]] and [[Special:Recentchangeslinked/How to edit a page]]

<tr><td> Link to a section on a page, e.g. Novell Industry Standards and Initiatives#Calendar (links to non-existent sections aren't really broken, they are treated as links to the page, i.e. to the top)</td><td> [[Novell Industry Standards and Initiatives#Calendar]]</td>. </tr> <tr valign="top"><td>To have a different name displayed: Open Source Community of Practice. </td> <td>
To have a different name displayed:
[[CoP - Open Source |Open Source Community of Practice]].

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Endings are blended into the link: testing, genes </td> <td>

Endings are blended
into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td> Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village pump. <p>The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature. </td> <td>

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. 
Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].

</td></tr> <tr> <td>When adding a comment to a Talk page, you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:

Ezs

or four for user name plus date/time:

Ezs 21:34, 25 April 2006 (MDT)</td>
<td>
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
adding three tildes for your user name:
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"><td>The weather in London is a page that doesn't exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• Have a look at how to start a page guide and

the naming conventions page for your project.

• After creating a page, search for its title and make sure that

everyone correctly links to it. </td>

<td>
[[The weather in London]] is a page
that doesn't exist yet.

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"><td> Redirect one article title to another by putting text like this (#Redirect) in its first line. </td>

<td>
#REDIRECT [[United States]]

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"><td> For a special way to link to the page on the same subject in another language or on another wiki, see MediaWiki User's Guide: Interwiki linking. </td>

<td>
[[MediaWiki User's Guide: Interwiki linking]]
</td>

</tr> <tr valign="top"><td>External Links: Novell

</td>

<td>
External Links: [http://www.novell.com Novell]

</td> </tr> <tr valign="top"><td>Or just give the URL: http://www.novell.com.

• In the URL all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF.

If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in ASCII). </td>

<td>
Or just give the URL:
http://www.novell.com.

</td> </tr> </table>

## Tables

There are 2 syntaxes available for table creation.

1. Wiki has it's own markup. An example would be to look at

the calendar on the Novell Industry Standards and Initiatives page.

1. Some of the usual html elements are also available. To see how

tables are created using html elements, look at the source for this page.

## Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

To reference other WIKI pages, enclose the page name with double square brackets. For example Novell Industry Standards and Initiatives.

To reference other WIKI pages, enclose the page name
with double square brackets.
For example [[Novell Industry Standards and Initiatives]].


Trivia:

• If the referenced page does not exist the words will be highlighted in red
• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• Internally WIKI converts the spaces between words into underscores.
• First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
• The URL for the Industry Standards and Initiatives page is: https://wiki.novell.com/index.html?title=

Novell_Industry_Standards_and_Initiatives </nowiki></pre>

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

• These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
'''''very strongly'''''.

You can also write italic and bold if the desired effect is a specific font style rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulae:

F = ma
• However, the difference between these two methods is not
very important for graphical browsers, and many people


choose to ignore it.

You can also write <i>italic</i> and <b>bold</b>
if the desired effect is a specific font style
rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulas:
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
A typewriter font for technical terms.
A typewriter font for <tt>technical terms</tt>.
You can use small text for captions.
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
You can strike out deleted material

and underline new material.

You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

Umlauts and accents: (See MediaWiki User's Guide: Creating special characters)
ÃƒÂ¨ ÃƒÂ© ÃƒÂª ÃƒÂ« ÃƒÂ¬ ÃƒÂ­

Ãƒâ‚¬ Ã¯Â¿Â½? Ãƒâ€š ÃƒÆ’ Ãƒâ€ž Ãƒâ€¦
Ãƒâ€  Ãƒâ€¡ ÃƒË† Ãƒâ€° ÃƒÅ  Ãƒâ€¹
ÃƒÅ’ Ã¯Â¿Â½? ÃƒÅ½ Ã¯Â¿Â½? Ãƒâ€˜ Ãƒâ€™
Ãƒâ€œ Ãƒâ€ Ãƒâ€¢ Ãƒâ€“ ÃƒËœ Ãƒâ„¢
ÃƒÅ¡ Ãƒâ€º ÃƒÅ“ ÃƒÅ¸ ÃƒÂ  ÃƒÂ¡
ÃƒÂ¢ ÃƒÂ£ ÃƒÂ¤ ÃƒÂ¥ ÃƒÂ¦ ÃƒÂ§
ÃƒÂ¨ ÃƒÂ© ÃƒÂª ÃƒÂ« ÃƒÂ¬ ÃƒÂ­
ÃƒÂ® ÃƒÂ¯ ÃƒÂ± ÃƒÂ² ÃƒÂ³ ÃƒÂ´
Ã‚Å“ ÃƒÂµ ÃƒÂ¶ ÃƒÂ¸ ÃƒÂ¹ ÃƒÂº
ÃƒÂ» ÃƒÂ¼ ÃƒÂ¿


ÃƒÂ¨ ÃƒÂ© ÃƒÂª ÃƒÂ« ÃƒÂ¬ ÃƒÂ­

Ãƒâ‚¬ Ã¯Â¿Â½? Ãƒâ€š ÃƒÆ’ Ãƒâ€ž Ãƒâ€¦
Ãƒâ€  Ãƒâ€¡ ÃƒË† Ãƒâ€° ÃƒÅ  Ãƒâ€¹
ÃƒÅ’ Ã¯Â¿Â½? ÃƒÅ½ Ã¯Â¿Â½? Ãƒâ€˜ Ãƒâ€™
Ãƒâ€œ Ãƒâ€ Ãƒâ€¢ Ãƒâ€“ ÃƒËœ Ãƒâ„¢
ÃƒÅ¡ Ãƒâ€º ÃƒÅ“ ÃƒÅ¸ ÃƒÂ  ÃƒÂ¡
ÃƒÂ¢ ÃƒÂ£ ÃƒÂ¤ ÃƒÂ¥ ÃƒÂ¦ ÃƒÂ§
ÃƒÂ¨ ÃƒÂ© ÃƒÂª ÃƒÂ« ÃƒÂ¬ ÃƒÂ­
ÃƒÂ® ÃƒÂ¯ ÃƒÂ± ÃƒÂ² ÃƒÂ³ ÃƒÂ´
Ã‚Å“ ÃƒÂµ ÃƒÂ¶ ÃƒÂ¸ ÃƒÂ¹ ÃƒÂº
ÃƒÂ» ÃƒÂ¼ ÃƒÂ¿

Punctuation:
Ã‚Â¿ Ã‚Â¡ Ã‚Â« Ã‚Â» Ã‚Â§ Ã‚Â¶
Ã‚â€  Ã‚â€¡ Ã‚â€¢ Ã‚â€”

Ã‚Â¿ Ã‚Â¡ Ã‚Â« Ã‚Â» Ã‚Â§ Ã‚Â¶
Ã‚â€  Ã‚â€¡ Ã‚â€¢ Ã‚â€”

Commercial symbols:
Ã‚â„¢ Ã‚Â© Ã‚Â® Ã‚Â¢ Ã‚â‚¬ Ã‚Â¥

Ã‚Â£ Ã‚Â¤
Ã‚â„¢ Ã‚Â© Ã‚Â® Ã‚Â¢ Ã‚â‚¬ Ã‚Â¥
Ã‚Â£ Ã‚Â¤

Subscript: x2

Superscript: x2 or xÃ‚Â²

• The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 Ãƒâ€” 10−12 CÃ‚Â² / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 mÃ‚Â²

Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or xÃ‚Â²
ε<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 Ãƒâ€” 10<sup>−12</sup>
CÃ‚Â² / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 mÃ‚Â²]]

Greek characters:

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ  σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω


Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − Ã‚Â± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
Ãƒâ€” Ã‚Â· ÃƒÂ· ∂ ′ ″
∇ Ã‚â€° Ã‚Â° ∴ ℵ ÃƒÂ¸
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
Ã‚Â¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔

∫ ∑ ∏ √ − Ã‚Â± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
Ãƒâ€” Ã‚Â· ÃƒÂ· ∂ ′ ″
∇ Ã‚â€° Ã‚Â° ∴ ℵ ÃƒÂ¸
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
Ã‚Â¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔
x2 ≥ 0 true.
• To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - .
• also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>  ≥  0 true.


Complicated formulae:

 $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (<i>to</i>) the [[FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escapes all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character entities.
<nowiki>Link → (<i>to</i>)
the [[FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown in page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
<!-- comment here -->

## Variables

CodeEffect
{{CURRENTMONTH}} 11
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} November
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} November
{{CURRENTDAY}} 12
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Tuesday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2019
{{CURRENTTIME}} 11:00
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 625
__NOEDITSECTION__ Page edits only

NUMBEROFARTICLES: number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, i.e. number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages).

## Page protection

In a few cases the link labeled "Template:Editthispage" is replaced by the text "Template:Protectedpage" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page can not be edited.

## Editing using an external editor

A web browser's text area editing capabilities can be quite constricting when making frequent or larger edits. Some browsers can be configured to allow text area editing using an external editor like vi, emacs, kwrite or wordpad.exe.

### Mozilla Firefox

The ViewSourceWith Firefox Extension allows the use of an external editor.